Below is a list of publications in which Barracuda Virtual Reactor has been used.  If you are an author and we've missed your publication, please let us know by emailing and we will be happy to add your paper.

Abbasi, A.; Ege, P. E.; de Lasa, H. I. CPFD Simulation of a Fast Fluidized Bed Steam Coal Gasifier Feeding Section. Chemical Engineering Journal 2011, 174 (1), 341–350.
Abbasi, A.; Islam, M. A.; Ege, P. E.; de Lasa, H. I. Downer Reactor Flow Measurements Using CREC-GS-Optiprobes. Powder Technology 2012, 224, 1–11.
Abbasi, A.; Islam, M. A.; Ege, P. E.; de Lasa, H. I. CPFD Flow Pattern Simulation in Downer Reactors. AIChE Journal 2013, 59 (5), 1635–1647.
Adkins, B. D.; Kapur, N.; Dudley, T.; Webb, S.; Blaser, P. Experimental Validation of CFD Hydrodynamic Models for Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis. Powder Technology 2017, 316, 725–739.
Adkins, B.; Dudley, T.; Kapur, N.; Blaser, P.; Parker, J.; Webb, S. Experimental Validation of CFD Hydrodynamic Models for Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP), 2016
Amblard, B.; Singh, R.; Gbordzoe, E.; Raynal, L. CFD Modeling of the Coke Combustion in an Industrial FCC Regenerator. Chemical Engineering Science 2016.
Ariyaratne, W. K. H.; Ratnayake, C.; Melaaen, M. C. Application of the MP-PIC Method for Predicting Pneumatic Conveying Characteristics of Dilute Phase Flows. Powder Technology 2017, 310, 318–328.
Berrouk, A. S.; Huang, A.; Bale, S.; Thampi, P.; Nandakumar, K. Numerical Simulation of a Commercial FCC Regenerator Using Multiphase Particle-in-Cell Methodology (MP-PIC). Advanced Powder Technology 2017, 28 (11), 2947–2960.
Berrouk, A. S.; Pornsilph, C.; Bale, S. S.; Du, Y.; Nandakumar, K. Simulation of a Large-Scale FCC Riser Using a Combination of MP-PIC and Four-Lump Oil-Cracking Kinetic Models. Energy Fuels 2017, 31 (5), 4758–4770.
Bigda, J. CPFD Numerical Study of Impact Dryer Performance. Drying Technology 2014, 32 (11), 1277–1288.
Bigda, J. Numerical Modelling of CO2 Enhanced Coal Gasification in a Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor, 2016
Blaser, P.; Fletcher, R.; Clark, S. AM-17-77 Improving FCC Economics through Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics Simulation; AFPM: San Antonio, TX, 2017.
Blaser, P.; Thibault, S.; Sexton, J. Use of Computational Modeling for FCC Reactor Cyclone Erosion Reduction at the Marathon Petroleum Catlettsburg Refinery; ECI: NH Conference Centre Leeuwenhorst Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 2013
Blaser, P.; Barua, R. Digitally Transforming Refineries. Hydrocarbon Engineering 2019
Blaser, P.; Gabites, J.; Brooke, A. Viva Energy’s Geelong Refinery Reduces FCCU Turnaround Risk. Hydrocarbon Processing 2018, Special Focus: Refining Technology, 2–5
Blaser, P. J.; Corina, G. Validation and Application of Computational Modeling to Reduce Erosion in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering 2012, 10 (1).
Breault, R. W.; Huckaby, E. D. Parametric Behavior of a CO2 Capture Process: CFD Simulation of Solid-Sorbent CO2 Absorption in a Riser Reactor. Applied Energy 2013, 112, 224–234.
Cha, B.; Kim, J.; Son, S. R.; Park, D. S.; Moon, I. CPFD Simulation of Fluidized Bed Flow in FCC Regenerator; London, 2012; pp 1153–1157.
Chen, C.; Werther, J.; Heinrich, S.; Qi, H.-Y.; Hartge, E.-U. CPFD Simulation of Circulating Fluidized Bed Risers. Powder Technology 2013, 235, 238–247.
Chen, X.; Ma, J.; Tian, X.; Wan, J.; Zhao, H. CPFD Simulation and Optimization of a 50 KWth Dual Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2019, 90, 102800.
Cho, H.; Cha, B.; Kim, S.; Ryu, J.; Kim, J.; Moon, I. Numerical Analysis for Particle Deposit Formation in Reactor Cyclone of Residue Fluidized Catalytic Cracking. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2013, 52 (22), 7252–7258.
Cho, H.; Cha, B.; Ryu, J.; Kim, S.; Moon, I. CPFD Simulation for Particle Deposit Formation in Reactor Cyclone of RFCC; Singapore, 2012; pp 915–919.
Clark, S. Particle-Fluid Flow Simulations of an FCC Regenerator; ECI: Sun River, OR, 2011; p 9
Clark, S. M.; Blaser, P. J.; Cocco, R. A.; Issangya, A. Numerical Simulations of PSRI Cold-Flow FCC Stripper Experiment with Subway Grating Baffles. AIChE Annual Meeting 2017 November 2, 2017
Clark, S.; Snider, D.; Fletcher, R. Multiphase Simulation of a Commercial Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Regenerator; Pittsburgh, 2012; p 9
Clark, S.; Snider, D. M.; Spenik, J. CO2 Adsorption Loop Experiment with Eulerian–Lagrangian Simulation. Powder Technology 2013, 242, 100–107.
Cocco, R.; Arrington, Y.; Hays, R.; Findlay, J.; Karri, S. B. R.; Knowlton, T. M. Jet Cup Attrition Testing. Powder Technology 2010, 200 (3), 224–233.
Cocco, R.; Findlay, J.; Knowlton, T. PSRI External Publication - EP26 How Intrusive Are Our Intrusive Probes? PSRI November 10, 2009.
Cocco, R. A.; Karri, S. B. R.; Knowlton, T. M.; Findlay, J.; Gauthier, T.; Chew, J. W.; Hrenya, C. M. Intrusive Probes in Riser Applications. AIChE Journal 2017.
Cocco, R.; Karri, S. B. R.; Knowlton, T. Avoid Fluidization Pitfalls. CEP 2014, No. December, 40–45
Fakourian, S.; Fry, A.; Jasperson, T. Analysis of Particle Behavior inside the Classifier of a Raymond Bowl Mill While Co-Milling Woody Biomass with Coal. Fuel Processing Technology 2018, 182, 95–103.
Fletcher, R.; Blaser, P.; Pendergrass, J.; Peccatiello, K. CAT-16-17 The Experience of a Team of Experts to Resolve Severe FCC Regenerator Maldistribution; AFPM, 2016
Fletcher, R.; Clark, S.; Parker, J.; Blaser, P. AM-16-15  Identifying the Root Cause of Afterburn in Fluidized Catalytic Crackers; AFPM: San Francisco, CA, 2016
Hamilton, M. A.; Whitty, K. J.; Lighty, J. S. Incorporating Oxygen Uncoupling Kinetics into Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of a Chemical Looping System. Energy Technology 2016.
Hu, S.; Wang, W.; Wessel, R.; Flynn, T.; Kraft, D. Effect of In-Bed Heat Exchanger on Bed Inventory Imbalance in a Pantleg CFB Design - a CFD Study; Beijing, China, 2014; p 6.
Jayarathna, C. K.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Tokheim, L.-A. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Minimum Fluidization Velocity and Void Fraction of a Limestone Based CO2 Sorbent. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 1432–1445.
Jiang, Y.; Qiu, G.; Wang, H. Modelling and Experimental Investigation of the Full-Loop Gas–Solid Flow in a Circulating Fluidized Bed with Six Cyclone Separators. Chemical Engineering Science 2014, 109, 85–97.
Karimipour, S.; Pugsley, T. Application of the Particle in Cell Approach for the Simulation of Bubbling Fluidized Beds of Geldart A Particles. Powder Technology 2012, 220, 63–69.
Klimanek, A.; Bigda, J. CFD Modelling of CO2 Enhanced Gasification of Coal in a Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor. Energy 2018, 160, 710–719.
Kodam, M.; Freireich, B. J.; Pretz, M. T.; Stears, B. A. Performance Prediction of Riser Termination Devices Using Barracuda Virtual Reactor®. Powder Technology 2017, 316, 190–197.
Kokourine, A.; Adham, K. Modeling and Process Features of Plug Flow Reactor with Internal Recirculation for Biomass Pyrolysis. Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology 2017, 08 (04).
Kraft, S.; Kirnbauer, F.; Hofbauer, H. CPFD Simulations of an Industrial-Sized Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Gasification System of Biomass with 8 MW Fuel Input. Applied Energy 2017, 190, 408–420.
Kraft, S.; Kirnbauer, F.; Hofbauer, H. Influence of Drag Laws on Pressure and Bed Material Recirculation Rate in a Cold Flow Model of an 8 MW Dual Fluidized Bed System by Means of CPFD. Particuology 2018, 36, 70–81.
Krusch, S.; Scherer, V. Barracuda Simulation of a CFBC Test Rig: Comparison with Experimental Results; Seoul, Korea, 2018; pp 806–815.
Lan, X.; Shi, X.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xu, C.; Gao, J. Solids Back-Mixing Behavior and Effect of the Mesoscale Structure in CFB Risers. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2013, 52 (34), 11888–11896.
Lanza, A.; de Lasa, H. Scaling-up down Flow Reactors. CPFD Simulations and Model Validation. Computers & Chemical Engineering 2017, 101, 226–242.
Lanza, A.; Islam, M. A.; de Lasa, H. CPFD Modeling and Experimental Validation of Gas–Solid Flow in a down Flow Reactor. Computers & Chemical Engineering 2016, 90, 79–93.
Li, X.; Jin, J.; Zhu, F.; Wang, X.; Lv, X.; Qu, Z. Design and CPFD Simulation of a Novel Fluidized Beds Reactor. In 2018 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC); IEEE: Xi’an, China, 2018; pp 4056–4060.
Liang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Li, T.; Lu, C. A Critical Validation Study on CPFD Model in Simulating Gas–Solid Bubbling Fluidized Beds. Powder Technology 2014, 263, 121–134.
Liang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, C. CPFD Simulation on Wear Mechanisms in Disk–Donut FCC Strippers. Powder Technology 2015, 279, 269–281.
Liu, H.; Li, J.; Wang, Q. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Co-Combustion of Oil Shale Retorting Solid Waste with Cornstalk Particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor. Applied Thermal Engineering 2018, 130, 296–308.
Liu, H.; Cattolica, R. J.; Seiser, R.; Liao, C. Three-Dimensional Full-Loop Simulation of a Dual Fluidized-Bed Biomass Gasifier. Applied Energy 2015, 160, 489–501.
Liu, H.; Cattolica, R. J.; Seiser, R. Operating Parameter Effects on the Solids Circulation Rate in the CFD Simulation of a Dual Fluidized-Bed Gasification System; Melbourne, Australia, 2015.
Liu, H.; Cattolica, R. J.; Seiser, R. CFD Studies on Biomass Gasification in a Pilot-Scale Dual Fluidized-Bed System. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2016.
Liu, H.; Cattolica, R. J.; Seiser, R. Operating Parameter Effects on the Solids Circulation Rate in the CFD Simulation of a Dual Fluidized-Bed Gasification System. Chemical Engineering Science 2017, 169, 235–245.
Loha, C.; Chattopadhyay, H.; Chatterjee, P. K. Three Dimensional Kinetic Modeling of Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification. Chemical Engineering Science 2014, 109, 53–64.
Lu, H.; Guo, X.; Zhao, W.; Gong, X.; Lu, J. Experimental and CPFD Numerical Study on Hopper Discharge. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2014, 53 (30), 12160–12169.
Nakhaei, M.; Wu, H.; Grévain, D.; Jensen, L. S.; Glarborg, P.; Dam–Johansen, K. CPFD Simulation of Petcoke and SRF Co–Firing in a Full–Scale Cement Calciner. Fuel Processing Technology 2019, 196, 106–153.
Nardo, A. D.; Calchetti, G.; Stendardo, S. Modeling and Simulation of an Oxygen-Blown Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier Using the Computational Particle- Fluid Dynamics (CPFD) Approach. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 2018, 11 (4), 825–834.
O’Rourke, P. J.; Snider, D. M. Inclusion of Collisional Return-to-Isotropy in the MP-PIC Method. Chemical Engineering Science 2012, 80, 39–54.
O’Rourke, P. J.; Snider, D. M. A New Blended Acceleration Model for the Particle Contact Forces Induced by an Interstitial Fluid in Dense Particle/Fluid Flows. Powder Technology 2014, 256, 39–51.
O’Rourke, P. J.; Snider, D. M. An Improved Collision Damping Time for MP-PIC Calculations of Dense Particle Flows with Applications to Polydisperse Sedimenting Beds and Colliding Particle Jets. Chemical Engineering Science 2010, 65 (22), 6014–6028.
O’Rourke, P. J.; Zhao, P. (Pinghua); Snider, D. A Model for Collisional Exchange in Gas/Liquid/Solid Fluidized Beds. Chemical Engineering Science 2009, 64 (8), 1784–1797.
Parker, J.; Williams, K.; Zhao, P. (Pinghua); Blaser, P.; Thibault, S. CPFD Modeling of Industrial-Scale Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems; Beijing, China, 2014; p 6
Parker, J.; LaMarche, K.; Chen, W.; Williams, K.; Stamato, H.; Thibault, S. CFD Simulations for Prediction of Scaling Effects in Pharmaceutical Fluidized Bed Processors at Three Scales. Powder Technology 2013, 235, 115–120.
Parker, J.; Larson, A. Application of Recent CFD Advancements to the Modeling of Chemical Looping Systems; Park City, UT, 2018; p 9
Parker, J. M. Validation of CFD Model for Polysilicon Deposition and Production of Silicon Fines in a Silane Deposition FBR. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering 2011, 9 (1).
Parker, J. M. CFD Model for the Simulation of Chemical Looping Combustion. Powder Technology 2014, 265, 47–53.
Perera, K. K.; Thapa, R. K.; Halvorsen, B. M. Simulation and Optimization of the Steam Gasification Process Using CPFD. In Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century; Ekateringburg, Russia, 2014; Vol. 2, pp 1215–1226.
Rostom, S.; de Lasa, H. Downer Fluidized Bed Reactor Modeling for Catalytic Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation with High Propylene Selectivity. Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification 2019, 137, 87–99.
Ryan, E. M.; DeCroix, D.; Breault, R.; Xu, W.; Huckaby, E. D.; Saha, K.; Dartevelle, S.; Sun, X. Multi-Phase CFD Modeling of Solid Sorbent Carbon Capture System. Powder Technology 2013, 242, 117–134.
Setlhaku, M.; Bronsaer, P.; Parker, J. Dynamic Behavior of Fluidized Bed Reactors for Gas Phase LLDPE Polymerization. May 22, 2016
Singh, R.; Gbordzoe, E. Modeling FCC Spent Catalyst Regeneration with Computational Fluid Dynamics. Powder Technology 2017, 316, 560–568.
Snider, D.; Banerjee, S. Heterogeneous Gas Chemistry in the CPFD Eulerian–Lagrangian Numerical Scheme (Ozone Decomposition). Powder Technology 2010, 199 (1), 100–106.
Snider, D. M.; Clark, S. M.; O’Rourke, P. J. Eulerian–Lagrangian Method for Three-Dimensional Thermal Reacting Flow with Application to Coal Gasifiers. Chemical Engineering Science 2011, 66 (6), 1285–1295.
Solnordal, C. B.; Kenche, V.; Hadley, T. D.; Feng, Y.; Witt, P. J.; Lim, K.-S. Simulation of an Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Using a Multiphase Particle-in-Cell Method. Powder Technology 2015, 274, 123–134.
Stanly, R.; Shoev, G.; A., K. A. Numerical Simulation of Gas-Solid Flows in Fluidized Bed with TFM Model; Novosibirsk, Russia, 2017; p 030040.
Tsai, K. CFD Modeling of Sand Distribution in a Multiply-Perforated Horizontal Pipe for Applications in Hydraulic Fracturing, 2013.
Tsai, K. CFD Modeling of Proppant Transport in Tight Gas Fractures and Strategies for Production Enhancements, 2014.
Tsai, K.; Degaleesan, S. S.; Fonseca, E. R.; Lake, E. Advanced Computational Modeling of Proppant Settling in Water Fractures for Shale Gas Production; Society of Petroleum Engineers: The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 2012.
Upadhyay, M.; Park, H. C.; Choi, H. S. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Coupled Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Rectangular Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor: Process Intensification. Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification 2018, 128, 180–187.
Upadhyay, M.; Park, H. C.; Hwang, J. G.; Choi, H. S.; Jang, H.-N.; Seo, Y.-C. Computational Particle-Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Gas-Solid Flow in a Circulating Fluidized Bed with Air or O 2 /CO 2 as Fluidizing Gas. Powder Technology 2017, 318, 350–362.
Vashisth, S.; Ahmadi Motlagh, A. H.; Tebianian, S.; Salcudean, M.; Grace, J. R. Comparison of Numerical Approaches to Model FCC Particles in Gas–Solid Bubbling Fluidized Bed. Chemical Engineering Science 2015, 134, 269–286.
Vivacqua, V.; Vashisth, S.; Hébrard, G.; Grace, J. R.; Epstein, N. Characterization of Fluidized Bed Layer Inversion in a 191-Mm-Diameter Column Using Both Experimental and CPFD Approaches. Chemical Engineering Science 2012, 80, 419–428.
Vivacqua, V.; Vashisth, S.; Prams, A.; Hébrard, G.; Epstein, N.; Grace, J. R. Experimental and CPFD Study of Axial and Radial Liquid Mixing in Water-Fluidized Beds of Two Solids Exhibiting Layer Inversion. Chemical Engineering Science 2013, 95, 119–127.
Wang, Q.; Yang, H.; Wang, P.; Lu, J.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Wei, L.; Zhang, M. Application of CPFD Method in the Simulation of a Circulating Fluidized Bed with a Loop Seal Part I—Determination of Modeling Parameters. Powder Technology 2014, 253, 814–821.
Wang, Q.; Yang, H.; Wang, P.; Lu, J.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Wei, L.; Zhang, M. Application of CPFD Method in the Simulation of a Circulating Fluidized Bed with a Loop Seal Part II—Investigation of Solids Circulation. Powder Technology 2014, 253, 822–828.
Weber, J. M.; Layfield, K. J.; Van Essendelft, D. T.; Mei, J. S. Fluid Bed Characterization Using Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT), Compared to CPFD Software’s Barracuda. Powder Technology 2013, 250, 138–146.
Xie, J.; Zhong, W.; Jin, B.; Shao, Y.; Liu, H. Simulation on Gasification of Forestry Residues in Fluidized Beds by Eulerian–Lagrangian Approach. Bioresource Technology 2012, 121, 36–46.
Xie, J.; Zhong, W.; Jin, B.; Shao, Y.; Huang, Y. Eulerian–Lagrangian Method for Three-Dimensional Simulation of Fluidized Bed Coal Gasification. Advanced Powder Technology 2013, 24 (1), 382–392.
Yin, S.; Zhong, W.; Jin, B.; Fan, J. Modeling on the Hydrodynamics of Pressurized High-Flux Circulating Fluidized Beds (PHFCFBs) by Eulerian–Lagrangian Approach. Powder Technology 2014, 259, 52–64.
Zhang, Y.; Lan, X.; Gao, J. Modeling of Gas-Solid Flow in a CFB Riser Based on Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics. Petroleum Science 2012, 9 (4), 535–543.
Zhang, Y.; Wei, Q. CPFD Simulation of Bed-to-Wall Heat Transfer in a Gas-Solids Bubbling Fluidized Bed with an Immersed Vertical Tube. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification 2017, 116, 17–28.
Zhao, P.; O’Rourke, P. J.; Snider, D. Liquid Injection into Fluidized Beds; AIChE: New Orleans, LA, 2008; p 8
Zhao, P.; O’Rourke, P. J.; Snider, D. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Liquid Injection, Film Formation and Transport, in Fluidized Beds. Particuology 2009, 7 (5), 337–346.