Refining and Petrochemical

The hydrocarbon processing industry manufactures many products critical to a modern mobile society, such as gasoline. One of the most important petrochemical operations is the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit.  This is a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) design connecting two principal components: Reactor and Regenerator.  Barracuda is being used to design and optimize process conditions in both regenerators and reactors. This has enabled customers to increase their FCCU reliability and performance, to address common problems such as ‘afterburn’, and to control emissions.

To see Barracuda VR applied to FCC applications, please visit our FCC Resources page

Reactor → Issues

  • Riser → vapor & catalyst residence times / reactions / backmixing at walls / coking
  • Disengagement Region → RTD / cyclones / stripper / transfer lines

Riser Phenomena

  • Core-annular flows
  • Backwashing at walls
  • Residence times distribution
  • Particle size effects

Regenerator → Issues

  • Spent cat return line → terminator
  • Air sparger → fluidization quality / locations / sizing
  • Cyclones → efficiency / reliability / wear / dipleg flooding
  • Fluid Bed→ gas/solids contact efficiency / effect of 'fines'

Regenerator Phenomena

  • Gas bypassing or streaming in the bed
  • Bed average density, DP/L
  • Elutriation rate / PSD
  • TDH / freeboard densities
  • Catalyst circulation rates, residence time
  • Withdrawal well air injection
  • Chemical Reactions, NOx emissions