Technical Attributes


  • Full 3D implementation
  • Continuum fluid (Eulerian)
    • Unlimited number of compressible gaseous species
  • Discrete particulate solids (Lagrangian)
    • Unlimited number of particles (systems up to 1016 particles have been simulated)
    • Unlimited number of particle species (e.g. sand, coal, catalyst, biomaterial, etc.)
    • Complete resolution of the entire Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for each particle species
    • Solids impaction with walls and internals, including surface erosion index
    • Inter-particle stress & collision models
  • Arbitrary multi-component particle composition (e.g., carbon, ash, sulfur, moisture, volatile gases)
  • Full bi-direction coupling between the fluid and particles
    • Fluid drags particles, particles displace fluids
    • Wide variety of drag model implementations
    • Models any solids loading (from dilute to dense-packed) simultaneously


  • Fluid energy equation with full coupling to particles
  • Discrete particle energy conservation
  • Heat transfer including to walls (in lean and dense phase), inter-phase and radiation
  • Heterogeneous heat of reaction affects both particle and fluid phases


  • Gas-gas (homogeneous) reactions
  • Gas-particle (heterogeneous) reactions solved at the discrete particle-level
    • Particles shrink, grow or change density due to reactions
  • Solids-catalyzed reactions
  • Wide range of functions for reaction rate formulation
  • Release of arbitrary volatile gases from particles (e.g. H2, CO, tars, etc.)


  • Time-transient with sophisticated, robust, automatic time-step control
  • Fast running ‘solver’ that enables industrial-scale applications
  • Numerically stable
  • Physics-based models for accuracy